Contents
  1. Allah Ke Wali Urdu Islamic book
  2. Sufi Martyrs of Love
  3. Print Version
  4. Allah Kay Wali By Khan Asif : Khan Asif : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

Allah Kay Wali By Khan Asif. byKhan Asif. Topics Islamic, Historic, Spirituality, Book. Collectionopensource. LanguageUrdu. Islamic, Historic. Maisonneuve & Larose Shāh Walī Allāh of Delhi's "Ḥujjat Allāh al-Bāligha": Tension between the Universal and the Particular in an Eighteenth-Century Islamic. Week 2 ppt. Financial Review Rolls-Royce. daroodularifeen phpapppdf. Allah Ke Safeer Ur. MS Case Studies BritishAirways_v6.

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Allah Ke Wali Pdf

ALLAH Ke Wali By Khan Asif paidestparpoisun.ml Libraries · Imamia Jantri Free Download Read Online PDF, All In One Urdu Books -. ALLAH Ke Wali By Khan Asif paidestparpoisun.ml Islami Mashoor Jungo Ki Tareekh Free Pdf Books, Urdu Novels, Books To Read. Open. Allah Ke Wali By Khan Asif, Allah Ke Wali Book, Allah Ke Wali Khan Asif, اللہ کے Qadam al Sheikh Abdul Qadir Ala Riqab al Auliya al Akabir Urdu Novels, Pdf.

Hermansen Source: Studia Islamica, No. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. One may more readily understand against this background the role of the traditional renewer, or mujaddid, who is supposed to appear in every century to renew the religion, with this renewal being variously interpreted as reviving adherance to the basic truths, smoothing the tensions among various factions, or synthesizing divergent tendencies for the reconsolidation of the community and the revitalization of the tradition. Perhaps the most well-known renewer has been al-Ghazali d. The subject of the present paper, Shah Wall Allah of Delhi d. The reason for this epithet is in part his mastery of a wide range of Islamic intellectual disciplines, including Law, Theology, and philosophical and experiential Sufism. Shah Wali Allah resembles al-Ghazali not only on this account, but also, more significantly, in the way in which he used his wide knowledge in an attempt to reconcile the tensions which he felt were tearing Islam in India apart.

One of these factors is the desirability of preserving among a people those aspects of previous traditions remaining among them which still operate for their benefit, as our author notes, "It is a principle of a successful prophetic mission that no previous custom which was good will be removed.

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Shah Wali Allah also notes that there is a third category of contingent, accidental factors in legislation which arise due to demands on the prophet to give rulings in the context of particular situations and to answer questions at specific times. It is here that the first tension between the particular and the universal aspects appears in Shah Wall Allah's theory. After explaining that some inciden- tal rulings of a prophet may become enshrined at a higher level because at certain times a spiritual force operates which effects such a transformation, he observes that Prophet Muhammad therefore discouraged specific questions of this type.

This then leads to the acknowledgment of a certain arbitrariness of some aspects of religious legislation which must nevertheless be obeyed. A second area where tension is evident in Sh5h Wall Allah's discussion is his description of Islam as final and universal. One reason given for the finality of Islam was that it completed the development of human social forms by providing for the highest form of social organization, the Caliphate.

A major and important portion of his discussion concerning the finality of Islam and its legislation elaborates on the structure of the Islamic laws. Here Shah Wall Allah distin- guishes between two branches of religious sciences: 1 Those related to the natural benefits or interests masalih of the human race and which are based on the innate constitution of man fitra. According to Shah Wali Allah, one who wishes to be well- versed in the religious sciences has to understand that man is required to carry out religious obligations on the basis of either or both of these branches.

In this context Shah Wali Allah presents his analysis of how religious symbols work. The concept of "religious symbol" is expressed in Shah Wali Allah's thought by the term "mazinna"; plural "mazann, or mazinnat".

Mazinna is derived from the Arabic root z-n-n meaning "to think", "to believe"; hence a mazinna is "a place where something is expected or thought to be, a supposed location or instantiation", or "a mark or indication for something". The symbols mazann for the religious acts were set in pre-eternity to be the most suitable for the nature of every people. These symbols have a very special relationship to their referents, for they are not only models 15 Ibid. Iujjat was largely for orthodox consumption, so that this is as far as Wall Allah discusses the finality of religious forms.

However, in his more mystical work, the Tafhlmat, he presents the concept that development in religious understanding continues, not prophetic revelation--but further possibi- lities for individual spiritual development.

The principal bearers of this further development are, first, Ibn 'Arabi, and finally, Shah Wali Allah himself. Al- Tafhmadt 1: HERMANSEN of them, standing for them, but they come to have an identical spiritual value and effectiveness insofar as the requital of God is concerned, and insofar as their psychological and spiritual effect on the humans practicing that religion is concerned. The relationship of the mazinna to the principle for which it stands is compared by Shah Wall Allah to that of the word to its referent, or the mental image to the reality which is thought about.

While the relationship of the symbol to its referent is fixed within any one context, it is possible that just as there are different languages, there may be different sets of mazann, each corresponding to a successive revelation of the one true din.

According to this theory of change, the symbols for the best interests masalih of the human race will vary with the in ages and customs. Examples of such abrogations are given, such as the varying of symbols or their expected locations within the Islamic tradition during the lifetime of the Prophet due to changes in material circumstances.

For example, the rules of inheri- tance were changed when the first Muslims emigrated to Medina, 16 Hujjat Allah 1: The Holy Enclave Hazirat al-Quds are the highest angels and souls of great beings who participate in the process of assisting the humans species.

Another ruling where the mazinna changed concerned a prohibition on making a date beverage in vessels other than water skins, as this would lead to fermentation. Later the prohibition was applied directly to the drinking of alcohol. The reason given for this change in the mazinna of the ruling was that by the time of the second, more comprehensive and clear prohibition, the Muslims had become firm in their faith and able to obey the rule.

Allah Ke Wali Urdu Islamic book

Other factors in the variation of religious rulings were changes in particular historical cir- cumstances. For example, Jacob had imposed on himself certain dietary restrictions as the result of a vow to God, and these were made incumbent on the Jews. The Muslims, however, did not have to follow the same rules since these historical circumstances were not considered part of the heritage of the Arabs.

He must also consider the relationship of the symbols to the time in which they had been revealed.

Sufi Martyrs of Love

Therefore, those rulings which are conditional upon the symbols for the salutary purposes mazann al-masalih of that time, and then those symbols come to vary due to variations in customs-he the prophet changes, since the essential goal in the legislation of rules is the best interests of mankind masdlih , and these are indicated by the symbols mazann. Sometimes a thing is a symbols for a salutary purpose, then it ceases to be such a symbol for it Some of these mazdnn may be considered natural symbols, as they are derived through the branch of rulings based on the masalih those things which are in accordance with the nature fira and purpose of the human race.

Violating rules connected with such mazann may be understood to lead to some sort of natural punishment or damage for a person even if no religious law had been revealed explicitly requiring them.

In the case of the religious laws shari'as connected with specific historical contexts; the religious symbols embodied in their rulings are derived from particular and temporal contexts. These come to have a general validity at a higher spiritual level and from there come to affect the form of the human species which exists from pre-eternity in the archetypal plane of the World of Images. Thus the symbols derived from the sharl'a branch of legislation become "naturalized" so that being requited on the basis of them is natural, as well as being based on legislated decrees.

This conclusion reinforces Shah Wall Allah's argument for the importance of the study of the hadith or sayings of the Prophet, an argument for which the entire first volume of the Hujjat Allah is a prelude. Here again a tension is evident in Shah Wall Allah's thought between universality and particularity.

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While the first cate- gory of religious symbols, the mazdnn which embody the masalih or beneficial interests of humanity, are recognized as based on the form of the human species based in a higher spiritual realm, the second category of the particular rules of the revealed Islamic shar'a, generated by particular historical circumstances or incidents, can only be allowed to carry the same force by allowing them a special power to reach this higher level.

Such a transformation occurs by negating time, so that these special events may act on the pre-eternal form of the human species altering it so that they become embodied in its ultimate destiny.

Reasons for Requital Natural-Spiritual Reasons 1. The human specific form For Requital 2. The pleasure or anger of the angels. The sending of the prophets Reasons For Requital 4.

This type of reasoning is not at all foreign to the tradition of Sufi mysticism, for according to Sufi beliefs, special forces, such as the concontrated zeal himma of saints can act on the archetypal forms or decrees in the World of Images and thus turn back or alter what had been decreed from pre-eternity.

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It should be noted that the importance of Shah Wall Allah's thought as expounded in the Hujjal Allah, lies in attempting to synthesize competing intellectual traditions within Islam, in particular emanationist mysticism and the "legalistic" orientation of Sunni Islam.

This dual orientation gives to his thought a certain tension between flexible, inclusive views and very firm, inflexible stances regarding the specific rulings of the Qur'an and the sunna.

It is clear that Shah Wall Allah stressed adherence to the sharV'aas being necessary for the practical cohesion of a community under enormous stress from internal, and in the Indian context, external, factors. Some aspects of his thought appear reformist and even puritanical, and on numerous occasion he spoke out against what he considered distortions in Islam whether these arose from the extravagances of the Sufis, the hair-splitting of the theologians and the philosophers, or the blind imitation to tradition of some of the legal scholars.

This Sufi inspi- ration behind much of his thought is also a source of tension since the belief in an individual mystical path under the supervision of a personal spiritual guide has always needed to be reconciled with the vision of Islam practiced by a community which follows a certain common set of rules.

In his work, al-Budur al-Bdzigha, Shah Wall Allah goes so far as to suggest his concept of what an "ultimate religion" al-milla al-quswd might be. Here the modes of religious practice, whether social, involving rituals, or legislation, would 22 This aspect of his thought has been noted in Rahman, "The Thinker if Crisis-Shah Waliy-Ullh" p.

Wall Allah notes, however, that this "ultimate religion" is impossible and hypothetical for several reasons, among them that humans are not perfect enough to receive or transmit it. Thus his theory of tatblq, or reconciliation of diverse elements, is used in its sense of allowing flexibility within the established tradition, but is not directed toward the problem of integrating or adapting to new elements.

Marcia K. Hermansen, Marcia K. Dissertation, University of Chicago, Husain M. Izutzu, Toshihiko, God and Man in the Quran. Reprint Books for Libraries. New York, Voll, John O. The universalistic implications of this naturalistic and developmental theory of religious revelation are consistent with one aspect of Shah Wall Allah's purpose in writing the IHujjal Alldh, that of putting the faith of Islam on a strong basis by explaining that there are salutary purposes masalih underlying religions legislation which are based on the ideal constitution of the human species.

However, his contention that recognizing these salutary purposes is not sufficient for deciding the validity of legislation, and his arguments for the final and immutable nature of the specific Islamic rulings, introduce an element of tension into his thought.

This arises due to the difficulty of asserting the ultimate validity of parti- cular rulings embodied in Islamic Law Shar'a while striving the explain these as emerging from an ideal universal form dTn.

Three broad areas of tension which occur in Shah Wali Allah's exposition will be discussed here: The tension between those rulings incorporated in a prophetic revelation which are based on universal human 8 Wali Allah, Al-Tafhimdt 1: It should also be noted that Shah Wali Allah does not consistently maintain this tolerant attitude.

For example, in Al-Tafhimat 2: The problem of affirming that Islam is the final, universal revelation while asserting that it was appropriate for the specific historical situation and temperament of the Arabs to whom it was first revealed. The problem of explaining how spiritual influences operate through each of two branches of religious legislation which Wali Allah's theory posits: Having posited this relativistic and progressive model of religious revelation, Shah Wall Allah has to develop his explana- tion of the specific nature of Islamic legislation and ritual practice within this framework.

He observes that the purpose of specific rulings in any religion involves making that religion endure and giving higher truths a concrete embodiment among a community of people. How then, are these specific rules to be derived? According to Shah Wall Allah there is, suited to the basic nature of ideal constitution fitra of all human beings a sort of common religious substratum known as the madhhab tabl'l. Of this natural way or path Shah Allah writes, "This is like the natural belief for human beings which the specific form sura nau'iyya provides, and the sects of the nations are equal in observing it".

With this in mind, Shah Wall Allah cautions that the founder-leader imam of a religion should keep his acts of legislation as close as possible to the natural belief madhhabfabT'I of mankind so that they may be promulgated with the minimum of conflict. HERMANSEN As human history unfolds, however, one is forced to acknow- ledge the differences which appear among nations both in temperament and historical heritage, and hence the need for variety arises in religious legislation due to these temperamental and historical factors.

Hence, Wali Allah explains how the specific rulings of a religion are instituted by a prophet on the basis of several factors. One of these factors is the desirability of preserving among a people those aspects of previous traditions remaining among them which still operate for their benefit, as our author notes, "It is a principle of a successful prophetic mission that no previous custom which was good will be removed.

Shah Wali Allah also notes that there is a third category of contingent, accidental factors in legislation which arise due to demands on the prophet to give rulings in the context of particular situations and to answer questions at specific times. It is here that the first tension between the particular and the universal aspects appears in Shah Wall Allah's theory.

After explaining that some inciden- tal rulings of a prophet may become enshrined at a higher level because at certain times a spiritual force operates which effects such a transformation, he observes that Prophet Muhammad therefore discouraged specific questions of this type.

This then leads to the acknowledgment of a certain arbitrariness of some aspects of religious legislation which must nevertheless be obeyed. A second area where tension is evident in Sh5h Wall Allah's discussion is his description of Islam as final and universal.

One reason given for the finality of Islam was that it completed the development of human social forms by providing for the highest form of social organization, the Caliphate. A major and important portion of his discussion concerning the finality of Islam and its legislation elaborates on the structure of the Islamic laws. Here Shah Wall Allah distin- guishes between two branches of religious sciences: According to Shah Wali Allah, one who wishes to be well- versed in the religious sciences has to understand that man is required to carry out religious obligations on the basis of either or both of these branches.

In this context Shah Wali Allah presents his analysis of how religious symbols work. The concept of "religious symbol" is expressed in Shah Wali Allah's thought by the term "mazinna"; plural "mazann, or mazinnat".

Mazinna is derived from the Arabic root z-n-n meaning "to think", "to believe"; hence a mazinna is "a place where something is expected or thought to be, a supposed location or instantiation", or "a mark or indication for something". The symbols mazann for the religious acts were set in pre-eternity to be the most suitable for the nature of every people.

These symbols have a very special relationship to their referents, for they are not only models 15 Ibid. Iujjat was largely for orthodox consumption, so that this is as far as Wall Allah discusses the finality of religious forms. However, in his more mystical work, the Tafhlmat, he presents the concept that development in religious understanding continues, not prophetic revelation--but further possibi- lities for individual spiritual development. The principal bearers of this further development are, first, Ibn 'Arabi, and finally, Shah Wali Allah himself.

Al- Tafhmadt 1: HERMANSEN of them, standing for them, but they come to have an identical spiritual value and effectiveness insofar as the requital of God is concerned, and insofar as their psychological and spiritual effect on the humans practicing that religion is concerned. The relationship of the mazinna to the principle for which it stands is compared by Shah Wall Allah to that of the word to its referent, or the mental image to the reality which is thought about.

While the relationship of the symbol to its referent is fixed within any one context, it is possible that just as there are different languages, there may be different sets of mazann, each corresponding to a successive revelation of the one true din. According to this theory of change, the symbols for the best interests masalih of the human race will vary with the in ages and customs. Examples of such abrogations are given, such as the varying of symbols or their expected locations within the Islamic tradition during the lifetime of the Prophet due to changes in material circumstances.

For example, the rules of inheri- tance were changed when the first Muslims emigrated to Medina, 16 Hujjat Allah 1: The Holy Enclave Hazirat al-Quds are the highest angels and souls of great beings who participate in the process of assisting the humans species. Another ruling where the mazinna changed concerned a prohibition on making a date beverage in vessels other than water skins, as this would lead to fermentation.

Later the prohibition was applied directly to the drinking of alcohol. The reason given for this change in the mazinna of the ruling was that by the time of the second, more comprehensive and clear prohibition, the Muslims had become firm in their faith and able to obey the rule. Other factors in the variation of religious rulings were changes in particular historical cir- cumstances.

For example, Jacob had imposed on himself certain dietary restrictions as the result of a vow to God, and these were made incumbent on the Jews. The Muslims, however, did not have to follow the same rules since these historical circumstances were not considered part of the heritage of the Arabs.

He must also consider the relationship of the symbols to the time in which they had been revealed. Therefore, those rulings which are conditional upon the symbols for the salutary purposes mazann al-masalih of that time, and then those symbols come to vary due to variations in customs-he the prophet changes, since the essential goal in the legislation of rules is the best interests of mankind masdlih , and these are indicated by the symbols mazann.

Sometimes a thing is a symbols for a salutary purpose, then it ceases to be such a symbol for it Some of these mazdnn may be considered natural symbols, as they are derived through the branch of rulings based on the masalih those things which are in accordance with the nature fira and purpose of the human race.

Violating rules connected with such mazann may be understood to lead to some sort of natural punishment or damage for a person even if no religious law had been revealed explicitly requiring them.

In the case of the religious laws shari'as connected with specific historical contexts; the religious symbols embodied in their rulings are derived from particular and temporal contexts. These come to have a general validity at a higher spiritual level and from there come to affect the form of the human species which exists from pre-eternity in the archetypal plane of the World of Images.

Thus the symbols derived from the sharl'a branch of legislation become "naturalized" so that being requited on the basis of them is natural, as well as being based on legislated decrees. This conclusion reinforces Shah Wall Allah's argument for the importance of the study of the hadith or sayings of the Prophet, an argument for which the entire first volume of the Hujjat Allah is a prelude.

Here again a tension is evident in Shah Wall Allah's thought between universality and particularity. While the first cate- gory of religious symbols, the mazdnn which embody the masalih or beneficial interests of humanity, are recognized as based on the form of the human species based in a higher spiritual realm, the second category of the particular rules of the revealed Islamic shar'a, generated by particular historical circumstances or incidents, can only be allowed to carry the same force by allowing them a special power to reach this higher level.

Such a transformation occurs by negating time, so that these special events may act on the pre-eternal form of the human species altering it so that they become embodied in its ultimate destiny. Reasons for Requital Natural-Spiritual Reasons 1. The human specific form For Requital 2. The pleasure or anger of the angels.

The sending of the prophets Reasons For Requital 4. This type of reasoning is not at all foreign to the tradition of Sufi mysticism, for according to Sufi beliefs, special forces, such as the concontrated zeal himma of saints can act on the archetypal forms or decrees in the World of Images and thus turn back or alter what had been decreed from pre-eternity. It should be noted that the importance of Shah Wall Allah's thought as expounded in the Hujjal Allah, lies in attempting to synthesize competing intellectual traditions within Islam, in particular emanationist mysticism and the "legalistic" orientation of Sunni Islam.

This dual orientation gives to his thought a certain tension between flexible, inclusive views and very firm, inflexible stances regarding the specific rulings of the Qur'an and the sunna. It is clear that Shah Wall Allah stressed adherence to the sharV'aas being necessary for the practical cohesion of a community under enormous stress from internal, and in the Indian context, external, factors.

Allah Kay Wali By Khan Asif : Khan Asif : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

Some aspects of his thought appear reformist and even puritanical, and on numerous occasion he spoke out against what he considered distortions in Islam whether these arose from the extravagances of the Sufis, the hair-splitting of the theologians and the philosophers, or the blind imitation to tradition of some of the legal scholars.

This Sufi inspi- ration behind much of his thought is also a source of tension since the belief in an individual mystical path under the supervision of a personal spiritual guide has always needed to be reconciled with the vision of Islam practiced by a community which follows a certain common set of rules. In his work, al-Budur al-Bdzigha, Shah Wall Allah goes so far as to suggest his concept of what an "ultimate religion" al-milla al-quswd might be.

Here the modes of religious practice, whether social, involving rituals, or legislation, would 22 This aspect of his thought has been noted in Rahman, "The Thinker if Crisis-Shah Waliy-Ullh" p. Wall Allah notes, however, that this "ultimate religion" is impossible and hypothetical for several reasons, among them that humans are not perfect enough to receive or transmit it. Thus his theory of tatblq, or reconciliation of diverse elements, is used in its sense of allowing flexibility within the established tradition, but is not directed toward the problem of integrating or adapting to new elements.

Hermansen, Marcia K.

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