By Andrew Berwick (Anders Behring Breivik), London – . It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any other. Anders Behring Breivik's Complete Manifesto “ – A European Declaration of Our version is also better formatted because the PDF that is. It's easy to convert the document from a Word file to a PDF file or any Karl Marx who wrote in The Communist Manifesto about the radical.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
PDF | This paper analyses three of the dominating discourses Anders Behring Breivik used in his It is believed Breivik posted his Manifesto on the Internet. Anders Behring Breivik since legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym . Breivik's manifesto included writings detailing how he played video games such as World of Warcraft to relax, and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. Breivik () summarises his childhood in his manifesto: 'So all in all, I consider myself privileged and I feel I have had a privileged upbringing with responsible.
Yet what he fails to account for is the fact that not every person with a troubled upbringing becomes a terrorist. Breivik grew up in a wealthy area in the Western part of Oslo where he himself points out there are not many Muslim immigrants; which makes it difficult to understand why this became an issue of such urgency and importance to him Gardell, ; Breivik, Breivik summarises his childhood in his manifesto: Breivik lists and explains these incidents in his manifesto, however it is questionable whether these are in fact radicalising factors, or cases he consciously uses to attempt to justify his cause.
Dalgaard-Nielsen , p. From a root cause perspective the supposed neglect he experienced as a child might have led him to search for meaning and purpose elsewhere. He joined the right-wing Progressive Party Fremskrittspartiet and was nominated to a higher position within the party, but lost to his opponent ibid.
Breivik states in his manifesto that the Islamisation of Europe has gone too far and cannot be stopped. He believes that Europeans would be the minority population within years ibid. Heitmeyer , p. Although they are a right-wing party, Norway does lack institutionalised parties that would allow for the radical opinions Breivik wanted to present. Breivik states in his manifesto that this was indeed a radicalising factor for him; when he realised he could not stop Islamisation of Europe within the democratic system.
Despite this important consideration, Breivik displayed such severe symptoms of mental illness, that the question of his psychological state could not be ignored.
As Breivik immediately confessed to the terrorist acts, the trial that followed was in large part dominated by the question of whether he should be considered sane or not.
Breivik has also frequently been described as a narcissist and of being self-obsessed Pantucci, Wessely also agrees with the second report, as he states that delusions are ideas that are not shared by others.
Structural Causes Considering the wider context in which terrorists become radicalised is important, as Post , p. However external context is also an aspect of radicalisation that should not be stressed too much, as Denoeux and Carter , p. Arguments relating to structural causes emphasise that wider context can have a significant impact on the individual Goodwin et al, , p.
Globalisation has arguably led to fragmented societies where some people increasingly see multiculturalism as a threat to their way of life Goodwin, et al, , p. Some people perceive globalisation as a threat to their culture, which Gurr , p. A way of restoring a sense of community and identity can be to join a radical group with a shared ideology and purpose Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p.
Due to these issues of globalisation, immigration and multiculturalism, Europe has in recent years seen a surge in support for radical right wing groups and institutionalised right wing political parties Goodwin et al. Nationalism is a key aspect of right wing extremism, however it is not necessarily a nationalism confined to nation-states Eatwell, p.
Ideology Denoeux and Carter , p. His ideas are regrettably not ones that were taken out of thin air; they are rather ideas linked to the international issues of recession, globalisation and immigration. Breivik is obsessed with what he perceives to be the Islamisation of Europe Pantucci, McCauley and Moskalenko , p.
Ideology appears to be a key motivator in its own right, however the step from harbouring radical ideas to acting out violence usually involves some kind of socialisation Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p. Ten of these paths to radicalisation include social or group related aspects, which shows that terrorists acting alone are in the minority. When an individual encounters and joins a radical group, they are surrounded by people with views akin to their own, and exposure to opposing views is gradually diminished as members have less contact with people of different opinions Dalgaard-Nielsen, , p.
The result is isolation from society, which reinforces the radical views of the group. Dalgaard Nielsen , p. Considering there is little evidence of Breivik being connected to such a group, the question arises as to whether the socialisation aspect of his radicalisation was non-existent, or whether the Internet can provide a venue for the same principles. Although Breivik did not experience the type of isolation within a group that Dalgaard Nielsen , p.
The social aspect he experienced largely took place online. Lippestad points out that radicalisation has changed since the s when radical groups were more visible, they are now a lot more difficult to identify in the online sphere Lundervold, Whereas for 10 years ago people with radical ideas had to travel far to meet up with others who shared their ideas, everyone is now connected on radical forums online, which can provide radicalising individuals with a strong feeling of a large likeminded community ibid.
As Crenshaw , p. All the research he conducted to produce his manifesto was conducted by browsing anti-Muslim forums and blogs Pantucci, A study carried out for the European Commission argues that radicalisation that takes place online is only secondary to physical interaction in real life Change Institute, The case of Breivik arguably disputes this claim. His radicalisation online did not only consist of social interaction in extreme-right forums, he also spent a considerable amount of time playing violent games.
Breivik himself claimed that he used the gaming obsession as a conscious tool to make people believe he was obsessed with games to hide that he was planning the terrorist attacks Breivik, According to the report self- radicalisation by definition happens in isolation ibid. However as argued in the above section of the essay, Breivik was by no means alone in his convictions. The online community he was a part of can arguably replace the social aspect required for someone to become radicalised.
A problem with conceptualising Breivik and others in terms of a lone wolf is that such terrorists are statistically more often insane than those who operate in organised groups Pantucci, Although discussing data related to Al Qaeda, Pantucci According to Goodwin et al. The above- mentioned aspects are all part of the wider process of how he became radicalised.
Yet it does seem that certain aspects were more significant than others. Out of the aspects of radicalisation that have been discussed in this essay, the most prominent ones in the case of Breivik appears to be the toxic combination of isolation, ideology and Internet.
However the type of radical ideas Breivik sought out are not coincidental, as the issues of multiculturalism and immigration have been increasingly important topics in contemporary politics. In court, Breivik was trialed as an individual who has plotted his attack without the help of others. According to Spaaij , p.
Lone wolves are particularly hard to identify before they strike, because they lack a visible community and this is the reason why they pose a major, public security threat. Richman and Sharan note that there is sometimes little difference between the actions of a lone wolf and an organized terrorist group, but that the lone wolf in some cases can be more dangerous, since there is no group-decision making process that regulates his impulsive actions and the lone wolf has less to lose e.
However, according to Spaaij , p. The Knights Templar are a constant source of reference during all of this. If we take this into account, one could easily ask the question, how alone was this lone wolf called Anders Breivik really?
Just before the attacks in Norway, he published his manifesto on the internet. He gives his view on what is wrong with today's society, points at numerous causes e. Islam, feminism, cultural Marxism and describes in detail how his plans will stop the decline of our Western civilization.
Thus, he sees himself as a part of a large group of individuals who share his ideas, instead of a lone wolf. He believes that his plan is an extension of the ideology of the Knights Templar and this seems to form the basis of his justification of the murder of the 77 people in Norway.
Who were the Knights Templar? The Knights Templar was a Catholic military order founded in and disbanded in by the Pope. It consisted of a large group of economically and politically powerful men, who were key in the organization of the crusades by providing financial and military support to the Catholic Church.
Known for their recognizable dressing style i. Ku Klux Klan Wollenberg, , p. In his manifesto, Breivik devotes a number of chapters to the history of the Knights Templar, their imagery and their contemporary significance. Throughout the centuries, the rise and fall of the Knights Templar, but especially the existence of their esoteric division, has given rise to a lot of speculation about the actual nature of the activities of this powerful order Wollenberg, , p.
During the twentieth century, more and more books and movies e. Apart from these theories and historical fabrications, there also has been a number of people who tried to revitalize the order.
Modelling themselves after the Freemasons and taking as their motto "Friendship, Hope and Charity", the order grew rapidly during the second half of the nineteenth century.
So as we can see, time and time again, the Knights Templar served as a source of inspiration for certain individuals and groups Wollenberg, , p. The 21st century Knight Templar Let us now try and see if we can find out why the Knights Templar have been and still are so attractive to certain people and, in particular, to Anders Behring Breivik. In his manifesto, Breivik describes his ideal for the European society and the ways in which we i.
Here, Breivik develops an interesting relationship to religion and in particular to Christianity. In his manifesto, Breivik comes across as a person who is obsessed with everything that even slightly resembles the proclamation of an ideal society with strong, white Western men and with all imagery representing muscular strength and political power.
For Breivik, religion is able to create a powerful form of society that can conquer and rule over a vast amount of land like Christianity showed us. One of the groups that according to him was vital in establishing the immense power of the Catholic Church were the Knights Templar. To us, this seems to be the main attraction for Breivik and the cause of idolization of these men in white and red.
To conclude, the Knights Templar have the right image i. A wolf pack behind Breivik?